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Saturday, October 28, 2017

>> RT(R) NOTES for Indian WPC Radio Telephony Exams



Disclaimer: To be used at owners risk. Not to be sold, Non-Profitable content. Highly recommended to refer legal documents. Content not to be quoted with any authority. Content may be used as a personal reference only. Prepared with reference to legal documents & books with few exception in topics, but are not personal opinions or experience.


Download RT(R) Aeronautical, 
Part - II Notes for VIVA

RTR Part-II, Section-I





 RTR Part-II, Section-III


 RTR Part-I Transmission Techniques
( Click to Redirect: RTR Part-I, Transmission Techniques)




NOTICE - THESE NOTES ARE JUST FOR PERSONAL USE AND CANNOT BE USED FOR QUOTING WITH ANY AUTHORITY.
we would like to hear for corrections along with the proof of mistakes on: indiancommercialaviation@gmail..com








Tuesday, March 3, 2015

>> Aviation & Innovation




The aviation seems to be much more older than we think it is.  Back in time around 5000 years back, the Hindu mythology describes the aircraft as "Pushpak-Viman" The Flying Chariot, as described in "Rig-Veda" the verses says:

" jumping into space speedily with a craft using fire and water ... containing twelve stamghas (pillars), one wheel, three machines, 300 pivots, and 60 instruments"


 The concept of Vimana



- as we can see, the verse of Rig-Veda says the use of fire and water, might be the jet-engines were used that time in which propulsion was achieved by the steam. 





A page from the book " THE LIFE AND WORK OF LEONARDO DA VINCI "
showing his drawing and notes related to flying machines 



Coming back to the modern days, back in some 1480 the Leonardo Da Vinci,  designed the concept of the "Aerial Screw"- a kind of helicopter, in his design and notes he also gave the concept of “Ornithopter"- Kind of machine which fly like a bird and carries the passengers. In his life time, Vinci gave number of concepts related to different kinds of flying-machines. 







As I have said earlier, the aviation is old enough than we think it is. The wright Brothers invented the flying machine as "Wright Flyer-I" & "Wright Flyer-II" in 19th century and created the modern history in aviation by putting their ideas from the mythology and Vinci`s writings to build first actual fuel powered airplane. 




After propeller driven wright Flyer`s, the concept of jet-engine was proposed by an English inventor " Frank Whittle" in 1928 and we have got the first turbo-jet engine  in 1930, which revolutionize the aviation to have such aircraft which can penetrate the troposphere and fly at the height of more than 11 km at the lower level of stratosphere. 



Boeing-747 (Left) vs Wright Flyer-I (Right)


Boeing, the leading aircraft manufacturer introduced the Boeing-747, the jumbo-jet flown as a commercial aircraft in 1970, It was powered by turbo-fan engine and has capacity to carry around 345 passengers (Variant: Boeing-747-400), which Wright Brothers might have never thought.









Airbus came in market and introduced the fly-by wire technology, to fly an airplane only with the joy-stick, unlike Boeing aircraft's. Airbus-A380 was the first aircraft to beat down Boeing-747, which stands today as a smart-tech in modern aviation history and it is capable of carrying around 853 passengers. 








NOTICE - THESE NOTES ARE JUST FOR PERSONAL USE AND CANNOT BE USED FOR QUOTING WITH ANY AUTHORITY.
we would like to hear for corrections along with the proof of mistakes on: indiancommercialaviation@gmail..com





Wednesday, February 18, 2015

>> Game of Wind & Aircraft



Qus. Is there an impact of airflow direction to the speed of an aircraft ?

Ans. Yes, there is an impact of wind on airplane. Let me give you a simple mathematical example. 

Before we do so, let me tell you some of the definitions of aircraft's speed. (Mainly for those aircraft's whose speed are less than 300 K), as we have different speed reference to calculate actual ground speed of the aircraft.


1.  IAS- It is the, Indicated Air Speed which we gets from airspeed indicator.

2.  CAS- Calibrated Air Speed, is Indicated airspeed corrected for any instrument error, if so. If there is no error then IAS=CAS and it is corrected by reading a placard installed in aircraft, installed by aircraft manufacturer.

3. TAS- True Air Speed, is the speed of the aircraft relative to the air mass through which it is flying. It is calculated by flight computer by making an input of IAS and Mean Sea Level Altitude.  

4.  G.S.- Ground Speed, is the actual speed of the aircraft relative to the ground/ earth surface. It is calculated by flight computer and it varies according to the direction and velocity of wind / wind component.  


Example: 1
let’s say if your aircraft's airspeed indicator indicates 90 knots* of Indicated AirspeedIAS

(*Knots- Nautical mile per hour, where 1 Nautical Mile is 1.852 Kilometers).

And by assuming that the True Airspeed
TAS of aircraft is also 90 knots, Let us say if wind of 20 knots is blowing towards the head of aircraft, i.e. headwindH.W.of 20 knots. In this condition the Ground Speed G.S.of aircraft will be 70 Knots, i.e. the actual speed of aircraft on earth.

[90 k TAS - 20 k H.W. = 70 k G.S]



Example: 2
Now if there is a tale wind
T.W.of 20 k and TAS of aircraft is 90 knots, The wind will push the aircraft from behind and help in gaining speed, the G.S. will be 110 K.

[20 k T.W. + 90 k TAS = 110 k G.S.]


Conclusion from example: 1 & 2
For a given TAS, for H.W. the G.S. decreases because it opposes the aircraft, and for T.W. the G.S. Increases because it pushes the aircraft from behind to gain the speed. When there is 0 K of H.W. or T.W. the TAS=G.S.

Now, what if Tailwind is not blowing directly towards the aircraft's tail or Headwind is not hitting the aircraft's nose directly. Well, need not to worry about cross-wind components. 

Another example of such case: 




Example: 3
now assume if aircraft is heading on magnetic direction of 360 Degrees (North) and wind is coming towards the aircraft at the speed of 30 knots from the direction of 045 Degrees (North East), aircraft is flying at TAS of 090 knots.

(Note: It is an example of Head-wind component)



Let’s make an input to the E6-B flight computer and calculate the ground speed of the aircraft.


After making an input to the Electronic flight computer we got the result, Ground speed of 72 Knots when TAS is 090 on Headwind component.(Ground-speed reduced on headwind component)




Example: 4
An aircraft with heading of 260 degrees, TAS of 090 Knots, wind coming from 130 degrees at 030 knots. Let’s calculate the Ground Speed.

(Note: It is an example of Tail-wind component)




Let’s make an input of above details to the E6-B flight computer.



We obtained Ground Speed of 106 Knots, for a given TAS of 090 Knots on Tailwind component.(Ground-speed increased on Tailwind component)


Conclusion from example 3 & 4
For a given TAS, with headwind wind component the GS decreases, with tailwind component the GS increases. 



Conclusion from Example 1, 2, 3 & 4:

With a change in the direction of wind, the speed of aircraft changes.
Or
We can also say that, for the change in aircraft's heading/course by keeping the wind direction constant, the speed of aircraft changes. (Headwind will become Tailwind and vice-verse, if aircraft makes an about turn, by keeping the wind direction same, the Ground Speed of aircraft will change)

NOTICE - THESE NOTES ARE JUST FOR PERSONAL USE AND CANNOT BE USED FOR QUOTING WITH ANY AUTHORITY.
we would like to hear for corrections along with the proof of mistakes on: indiancommercialaviation@gmail..com

Saturday, February 23, 2013

>> All About Human Performance

This part is prime focused on HUMAN PERFORMANCE & 
AERO-MEDICAL FACTORS.


About oxygen and alveolar air:
partial pressure of oxygen @ 10,000 feet 55 mm hg above cabin heights of 10,000 feet oxygen needs to be added  is to be sufficient to maintain an alveolar partial pressure of 103 mm hg which is equivalent to breathing air at sea level. oxygen is added as per the altitude and keep adding to maintain 103 mm hg. which is a sea level oxygen partial pressure. Stage reaches when one hundred percent oxygen is required to maintain the 103 mm hg-This stage reaches @ 33,700 ft. we can continue flying till the alveolar partial pressure of 55 mm hg (equivalent of breathing air @ 10,000 FT) - This partial pressure is reached @ 40,000 ft above this 100% oxygen must be supplied @ an increase  pressure (Pressure breathing) but this is more relevant for military crew and Concorde crews who fly at high altitude.

Threshold of oxygen requirements summary-

up to 10,000 feet      Air only
10,000 - 33,700 feet   Oxygen / Air mixture
33,700 - 40,000 feet   100% Oxygen
above 40,000 feet      100% Oxygen under pressure



Smoking and Anaemic Hypoxia-
smoking produces carbon-monoxide which is inhaled, as the hemoglobin in the red blood cells has much greater affinity 
to this carbon monoxide than to carbon than to oxygen it reduces the availability of hemoglobin to transport oxygen. heavy 
smoking produces 8-10 percent carboxyhemoglobin in the blood, a regular smoker will start to suffer 
from hypoxia approximately 4000-5000 ft below that of a non-smoker.



Time of Useful Consciousness at Various Altitudes-

 Altitude        Progressive Decompression              Rapid Decompression
   (ft)              Sitting        Moderate Activity

18,000        About 40 min.        About 30 min.             20 to 25 min.
20,000             10 min.               5 min.                        3 min.
25,000               5 min.               3 min.                        2 min.
30,000  1.5 min.              45 sec.                      30 sec.
35,000               45 sec.             30 sec.                       20 sec.
40,000               25 sec.             18 sec.                       12 sec.
43,000               18 sec.             12 sec.                       12 sec.






Hypoxia and Hyperventilation symptoms are hard to Distinguish:

Hypoxia: Breath rate to be increased to raise the level of oxygen in blood whereas in hyperventilation
breath rate should be slow down then normal to raise the carbonic acid level in blood. 

*DO NOT ASSUME HYPERVENTILATION IF IT COULD BE HYPOXIA
  HYPERVENTILATION- After Unconsciousness- RECOVERY
  HYPOXIA - After Unconsciousness- DEATH



Q. Why we do not maintain the CABIN ALTITUDE at sea level pressure ?
A. Ideally it should be but this is impractical because of aircraft weight and fuselage strength limitations.

All about cabin pressurization-
commercial airliners flying @ 30,000 feet produces an internal cabin pressure equivalent to 6,000 ft with max limit of 8,000 ft. the pressure 
differential across the aircraft skin is normally designed not to exceed 8-9 p.s.i. 
the rate of change of cabin pressure  > 500 ft per minute: on ascend
     > 300 ft per minute: on descend

Decompression sickness: Is due to the the nitrogen which comes out of blood while forming
bubbles like as in fizzy drinks when bottle of soft drink is opened formation of bubbles 
occurs and pressure allowed to drop.

Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs while any ascent to altitudes over 25,000 ft
it is more likely the higher and longer exposure to altitudes above 18,000 ft
it is unlikely to occur below 14,000 ft.

person suffered from DCS may collapse and in rare cases DCS may occur
or persist after descent and go on to cause DEATH. 

symptoms: DCS caused pain in joints due to leakage of nitrogen as a bubble causing pain in body joints like knee, shoulder etc and pain is called BENDS. 
skin causes the creeps when sufferer feel the small compact colony of ants crawling over, or just under, the skin.

Respiratory systems known as CHOKES causes piercing pain in respiratory system.
Brain it affects as STAGGERS, patient may loose mental control, chronic paralysis or may even permanent mental disturbance.

DCS can be avoided by Pre-Oxygenation before expose to high altitudes, it reduces the body storage of 
nitrogen as much as possible.

To cure DCS: Sufferer should be put on to a 100% Oxygen supply. Land as soon as possible and before that
descent to a level at which the symptoms are relived.


While diving body is exposed to 2 atm pressure (1 atm by air above the water and 1 atm by water itself)
In scuba diving, air under pressure  is used and this increases the amount of nitrogen in the body. 
On ascend this may come out of blood and giving rise to  DCS.
DO NOT FLY WITH IN 12 HOURS OF SWIMMING USING COMPRESSED AIR AND AVOID FLYING FOR 24 HOURS IF DEPTH OF 300 FEET HAS BEEN
EXCEEDED.  (AT 30 FEET THE PRESSURE IS EQUAL TO A SEA LEVEL PRESSURE THAT IS: 760 MM HG.) 



NOTICE - THESE NOTES ARE JUST FOR PERSONAL USE AND CANNOT BE USED FOR QUOTING WITH ANY AUTHORITY.
we would like to hear for corrections along with the proof of mistakes on: indiancommercialaviation@gmail..com


Saturday, January 19, 2013

WELCOME TO ICA-Blog

                                                 
 click on Tiles for the Topic you want to Read-
  



RTR TRANSMISSTION TECHNIQUE (RTR PART-1)
TOPICS ARE COVERED WITH DIFFERENT SITUATIONS AND EXAMPLES
WITH CALL BACKS
ATS ROUTE CHARTS
ELECTRONICS IN AVIATION COMMUNICATION: RTR PART-2
TOPICS FOCUSED  ON  ELECTRONICS WITH DIAGRAMS
IMPORTANT ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL TERMS AND  DEFINATIONS

DEFINATIONS OF AEROFOIL


AVIATION- LEARN WITH FUN

AVIATION PICTURE GALLERY


MATERIAL FOR RTR PART-2
ICAO PUBLICATIONS AND OTHER RTR VIVA NOTES
 
NOTICE - THESE NOTES ARE JUST FOR PERSONAL USE AND CANNOT BE USED FOR QUOTING WITH ANY AUTHORITY.

we would like to hear for corrections along with the proof of mistakes on: indiancommercialaviation@gmail..com

 


Friday, April 20, 2012

>> RTR TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE

We are listing some of the very common topics based on different situations in RTR Transmission.
 It’s nearly impossible to cover all the situations but discussing some of the common topics.
 In case, if question comes out of the topics discussed below.  It is recommended for a candidate
 to attend the question in examination by using standard phrases and standard
 transmission technique. There are also few small situations which are discussed  in 
 between of the topics listed below.

Disclaimer: The topic covered below is for RTR Transmission exams and 
most of the situations are very different from the Real life transmission on-board an         
aircraft. These notes are just to set a format in your mind and for standard practice for   
RTR transmission examinations. In any case Author is not Responsible for any such       
details given in this blog if quoted with any authority. And also it will not serve as a legal 
document. Non of the charts, maps and other drawings given in this blog is for practical 
purpose.All drawings, charts, maps are given as a sample for understanding.                  
However, these notes are prepared after the self-study done by author from different     
government and non-government documents, books and other reading materials.           
In any case readers are recommended to read content at  there own risk.                       

Situations of RTR Transmission
    1.     Position Report
    2.     RVSM
a.     Aircraft unable RVSM, in contact with ATC.
b.     Aircraft flying on deviated track, no contact with ATC 
c.      Aircraft unable RVSM, re-established contact with ATC.
d.     Non-RVSM approved aircraft, for RVSM Level.
     3.     Radio communication failure
     4.     Joining or crossing ATS Routes
     5.     AIRPROX – on different situations 
     6.     Traffic on reciprocal tracks, crossing each other – climb or descend/ 
           lateral separation/ longitudinal separation.
     7.  a. Weather deviation (In contact with ATC)                                                                                          
         b. Weather deviation (no contact with ATC)
     8.     Wind shear report
     9.     Vehicle on Taxiway
   10. Request to change ATS Route (Altering Route)
   11. Urgency
   12. Distress          
          a. Cabin decompression                                                                                                      
          b. Engine on fire                                                                                                                 
          c. Aircraft entered in prohibited area.
   13.  Visual Approach 
   14. Standard Instrument Departures (SID`s charts)
   15. Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR`s charts)      
   16. Holdings Over Fix or w.r.t. Fix.                 
   



Download Sample- Question papers

                                                                 
                                                         
                                   Part-1,Questionnaire-1                                 
  Part-1, Questionnaire-2 

Part-2, Questionnaire-1 


   Download HYPOTHETICAL ATS ROUTE CHARTS
   For practice:


ELECTRONICS IN AVIATION COMMUNICATION - RTR PART-2
    http://icaviation.blogspot.in/2012/01/electronics-in-aviation-communication.html



 INDIAN RTR PART -1 TRANSMISSION/CALL BACKS & PART-2
 http://www.incoav.com/2012/01/indian-rtr-part-1-transmissioncall.html


 Download Sample RTR Transmission, Below-

  Download Sample RTR Call-back, Below -



(Click to Re-direct for Part - II Viva Notes)









                                                              1. Position Report                                                     


                Example-

  figure 1.1                                -by ICA

                                     
Transmission Format 

Station called                                  kings-way control 
Station calling (with station freq.)   Air India 131 on 118.1
Spoken word                                   POSITION
Reporting point time                      ANR 1100 
                                              (Give fix name and then present time over that fix)
Flight level                                             FL330
EST. Next Reporting Point              EST. Blue Whale 1115
Reporting Point Ensuing                 PM Next





         
Example- 
figure 1.2                                    -by ICA

     
    Transmission- 
                              kings way control on 118.1
                              Air India 131
                              POSITION
                              ANR 1100
                              FL 330
                              Est. Blue Whale 1115
                              BWN Next


                             




* Distance should be reported with respect to VOR AND DME
   by using word " TO" and " FROM"

          Example- 
figure 1.3                                                                 - by ICA
                           


* Use word " ABEAM" when aircraft has Nav-Aid at 090 degrees
    to its RIGHT or LEFT side.
figure 1.4                                                  - by ICA





* If aircraft is overhead of any FIX (VOR, DR etc...). 
  Use only  " Name of FIX" and give " PRESENT TIME" over 
  that fix, it`s better not to use word " OVERHEAD" in such case. 

   Example- 

                  Transmission -  AI-131 POSITION DPN 1100 FL320







2. RVSM
                                                               (Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums)

 RVSM Airspace is from FL290 to FL410

Requirements to Fly RVSM -

# Airspace should be approved as RVSM airspace
# Aircraft should be certified to Fly RVSM
# pilot should be approved to FLY RVSM


Following Equipment should be fully serviceable-

# Two Primary Altimeter Settings
# Automatic Altitude Keeping Device
# Altitude Alerting Device
# Transponder with MODE- C


Separation in RVSM

# Aircraft in same direction, separation is of 2000 feet
# Aircraft in opposite direction, separation is of 1000 feet


Situation (a)
Aircraft becomes Non-compliant to RVSM, due any of the mandatory 
equipment failure. In contact with ATC
Figure 1.5                 - by ICA

Example- 

Transmission - 
[ chennai control VT-RGT, Unable RVSM due equipment.
  POSITION, 60 DME Distance from MMV P628 FL310
  Required FL270 ]


Important:  In the above given example, a pilot cannot request FL 280. 
Because its a east bound flight. please read " Semi-circular Rule " 
for more details.

Golden Words: Do not forget to use hypothetical data whenever required, 
but if it is given. Then use the data given in your question paper. 
In the above given example there is no data given for DME, AIRWAY etc.



Transmission -

Pilot - chennai control VT-RGT unable RVSM due equipment. 
             POSITION, 60 DME Distance from MMV P628
             FL310  REQUEST  FL270

Chennai control- VT-RGT Descend to FL270

Pilot-  Leaving FL310 for FL270, VT-RGT




Situation (b.)
 Aircraft Unable to continue RVSM, Lost Contact with ATC.





If aircraft unable to continue RVSM and Lost contact with ATC. 
First make right or left turn by 90 degrees and continue flying 
till 15 nm. Once you are at 15 nm make a turn parallel to the assign ATS 
Route and climb or descend by 500 feet. SWITCH ON all exterior lights.

" transmission for this situation is given below this figure" 


Transmission Format 

1. Pan-pan pan-pan pan-pan
2. All aircraft All aircraft
3. In the vicinity of (DME DISTANCE, NAME OF FIX AND ROUTE)
4. Aircraft identification  
5. Type of aircraft
6. Unable RVSM due (EQUIPMENT, SEVERE TURBULENCE etc.)
7. Position of aircraft (DME DISTANCE, FIX AND ROUTE)
8. Flight level
9. What action you are taking (TURNING RIGHT/LEFT BY 90 DEGREES
                                                   - FOR 15 NM - WILL FLY FL+500 
                                                   OR FL-500 FEET ON DEVIATED TRACK)

10. All exterior lights switched ON
11. Keep a look out



figure 1.6                                -by ICA
                                                                           
Example-
Transmission-
Pilot-  pan-pan pan-pan pan-pan
All aircraft All aircraft
In the vicinity of P628 VT-RGT AIRBUS, 
Unable RVSM due EQUIPMENT
50 DME Distance from MMV
P628 FL310 Turning Right by 90 degrees 
for 15 nm, will fly FL315 on Deviated Track.
All Exterior Lights Switched ON
Keep a Look Out

IN THE ABOVE TRANSMISSION:  VT-RGT is an aircraft registration no.
                                                             P628 is Hypothetical AIRWAY
                                                             MMV is a fix (hypothetically)
                                                             Do not forget to transmit- type of Aircraft





* How to transmit while changing a Flight Levels on Cruise ?
   Transmit- 1. while leaving a Level
                     2. passing a Level
                     3. Reaching a Level 



Situation (c.)
Aircraft on Deviated track, an ATC contact Re-established.
 figure 1.7                                -by ICA  










                                                                                                                   Transmission- 
Pilot- Chennai control VT-RGT when 50 DME
distance from MMV P628*. Lost contact with you,
were unable RVSM due equipment. 
Present position 15 nm deviated track
crossing radial 140, 80 DME from MMV FL315
Request to Resume Normal Navigation (RNN) AND 
FL 270

Chennai control- VT-RGT, Clear to RNN. Clear to descend FL270

Pilot- Returning to P628*,
Leaving FL315 for FL 270, VT-RGT
*(P628 is an Airway)

Situation (d.)
Non RVSM approved aircraft  for RVSM level

Transmission-
Pilot- Mumbai control VT-RJP, FL270
          required FL310. Negative RVSM

Mumbai control- VT-RJP climb to FL310

Pilot- Leaving FL270 for FL310
          Negative RVSM, VT-RJP 

Pilot- Mumbai control, VT-RJP maintaining
FL310 Negative RVSM


Situation (e.)
Aircraft becomes non-compliant to RVSM, due severe turbulence. Fails 
to get ATC clearance.
      figure 1.8                                -by ICA
                                                             
Transmission-
Pilot-  pan-pan pan-pan pan-pan
           all aircraft all aircraft
           In the vicinity of P628
      VT-RGT Airbus P628 FL310
Turning right by 90 degrees for 15 nm
       due weather/ thunderstorm
  will fly FL315 on deviated track 
   all exterior lights switched ON
                keep a look-out





3. Radio Communication Failure(RCF)
                                                                               
In case of Radio communication failure-

1. Try to contact on alternate frequency 
2. If above fails, try to contact appropriate ground station 
3. If the above fails, try to contact with aircraft flying in vicinity on
    appropriate frequency.
4. If the above fails, transmit you message on the frequency at which you 
     transmitted earlier at the first place. 

     MAKE THIS TRANSMISSION AS- "BLIND TRANSMISSION" 
     AND REPEAT IT TWICE.

 The concept is given below-
Figure 1.9       -by ICA
                                                    


In this given situation, an Airbus with Registration no. VT-LMC
initially cleared for FL160 for the separation from other traffic, later it 
is suppose to climb for En-route on FL220  (two two zero) but
unable to contact the Facility due to Radio communication failure.
        As per RCF  procedure, pilot estimates the first reporting point 
i.e. between DPN and IKABA at FL160. lets us say, 
Pilot estimates-
 IKABA @ 1210. Now as per RCF procedure, aircraft will
leave FL160 for its en-route climb exactly after 20 (two zero) minutes
from the first estimate (IKABA).
It will leave FL160 for FL220 @ 1230 [1210 + 0020 minutes]. Keep this in 
mind that this is a Broadcast. 

Transmission for the above given situation - 
Transmission-
Pilot- Delhi Approach  VT-LMC on 118.1 Airbus
Transmitting Blind
FL160, Est IKABA 1210 JJP 1225 GUDUM 1245
will leave FL160 1230 for FL220 
will transmit again at 1210
           
" I SAY AGAIN "
          
Delhi Approach  VT-LMC on 118.1 Airbus
Transmitting Blind
FL160, Est IKABA 1210 JJP 1225 GUDUM 1245
will leave FL160 1230 for FL220 
will transmit again at 1210
            

(* keep broadcasting on each and every reporting point, give full compliance
     until examiner asks you to attend next question)

Pilot- Delhi Approach VT-LMC on 118.1
transmitting blind Position
JJP 1225 Est. GUDUM 1245
IDOLA next.
will transmit again at 1230
   " I SAY AGAIN"

Delhi Approach VT-LMC
transmitting blind Position
JJP 1225 Est. GUDUM 1245
IDOLA next.
will transmit again at 1230

Pilot- Delhi Approach VT-LMC
on 118.1 transmitting blind
leaving FL160 for FL220
will transmit again reaching FL220
      " I SAY AGAIN"

Delhi Approach VT-LMC
on 118.1 transmitting blind
leaving FL160 for FL220
will transmit again reaching FL220


Do you want to read more on RCF?   click on the link given below:
http://www.awsa.co.za/sites/default/files/91_06_16_Mandatory_Radio_Communications.pdf



4.  Joining or crossing ATS Routes


Transmission Format 
1. Station called
2. Station calling
3. Type of aircraft
4. Weather conditions (IMC or VMC)
5. Position, level
6. Est. of joining point
7. Level of joining point
8. Route
9. Landing aerodrome after joining 
10. T.A.S.
11. Request joining clearance or Crossing clearance 

Download HYPOTHETICAL ATS ROUTE CHARTS
for practice on exercise given below:
click on link given below:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/90632798/Hypothetical-ATS-Route-Charts

It is Recommended to get the printout of charts before you start practice on situation-

Example-

Situation- Aircraft Identity: VT-RJP      Type of aircraft: ATR
                 Route: Jodhpur to Delhi        Refer chart no. 1. (download charts from link given above)
                 FL210                                    

Transmission- 
Pilot- DELHI CONTROL  VT-RJP ATR
IMC POSITION R085 60DME DISTANCE
FROM JJO FL210 EST. UKBAB 1215
FL210 W13N LANDING DELHI
TAS 310 KNOTS 
REQUEST JOINING CLEARANCE


Situation- Aircraft Identity: VT-RJP    Type of aircraft: Boeing
                 Route: VABP - VAUD via Pratapgarh 
                 FL220                        Refer chart no. 1.

1. At 60 nm from VABP, Nagpur changes you to Next ATC unit. 
    obtain crossing clearance.

Transmission- ASSUME PRESENT TIME: 0440
Pilot- AHEMDABAD CONTROL VT-RJP ON 134.2
BOEING IMC POSITION R285 60DME DISTANCE 
FROM BPL FL220 A474  EST. PRA 0500
LANDING UDAIPUR TAS 340 KNOTS
REQUEST CROSSING CLEARANCE



5. Airprox

Word "AIRPROX" derived from Aircraft Proximity.
The situation classified by the level of Risks:
1. Risk of Collision - when there is a serious risk of collision has existed. 
2. Safety not assured- when the safety of aircraft have been compromised. 
3. No risk of collision- when there is no risk of collision has existed.
4. Risk not determined- when there is insufficient information available to determine
                                    the risk involved, or in conclusion or conflicting evidence 
                                    precluded such determination. 
   figure 2.0                                -by ICA
                                              
                                                    
Transmission Format 

Type of Incidence- Varanasi control " Airprox" Risk of collision
AI-131 Airbus Radial 290, 90 DME Distance TO BBN R594 TAS 
480K FL330 Maintaining
Flying conditions-  IMC/VMC
Time of Incidence- At Time 0315
Details- An Indian Air-force (IAF) fighter aircraft crossed flight 
path by 3nm ahead in descending phase from left to right sighted
10 o` clock



Example-
Given: Aircraft Registration: VT-PXQ          Type of Aircraft: AIRBUS
Route: VABP-VEJS, A791
Flight Level: 350                                      Refer Chart No. 2 (download charts from link given above)

Situation: You reached JAJB at 1815. An IAF Fighter aircraft crosses your flight path from Left to Right in climbing phase approx. 3NM ahead. Transmit your message

Transmission: NAGPUR CONTROL " AIRPROX "  RISK OF COLLISION 
VT-PXQ AIRBUS JJB1815 A791 TAS 360K    FL350 IMC.
AT 1814 AN IAF FIGHTER AIRCRAFT CROSSED FLIGHT 
PATH 3NM AHEAD IN CLIMBING 
PHASE. SIGHTED 12 O`CLOCK.



6. Traffic on Reciprocal track 
figure 2.1                                -by ICA
                                                        
# Clearance of climb or descent to other FL will be given by ATC after 
   Est. time to cross + 10 minutes.
# If traffic is in sight - TRANSMIT- " Traffic in sight (AI-131), 
   we cleared the traffic"
   after that request climb/descend, so there is no need to wait
   for 10 minutes after Est. time to cross because clearing of traffic is confirmed.
  figure 2.2                                -by ICA
                                                          

7. Weather deviation
   figure 2.3                                -by ICA
                                                     
Situation (a.)  Aircraft in contact with ATC

case of weather deviation from ATS Route:

Format of Transmission-
Pilot: NAGPUR CONTROL VT-LMC
AIRBUS "WEATHER DEVIATION REQUIRED"
TO RIGHT BY 15 NM DUE BAD WEATHER
DURATION 10 MINUTES.

Nagpur control: VT-LMC 15NM DEVIATION TO RIGHT 

Pilot: TURNING (DEVIATION) RIGHT, VT-LMC
[DO NOT REQUEST DEVIATION IN DEGREES, REQUEST IN DISTANCE (NM).
YOU CAN REQUEST FOR APPROPRIATE DISTANCE TO CLEAR OFF THE WEATHER]
Always Remember : Always avoid diversion to the direction where there is another 
ATS Route is passing. Request/choose the opposite side in such case. There is a diversion 
preference while crossing thunderstorm to your right hand side or left hand side 
(starboard or port) which depends upon hemisphere where you are flying. This is not an 
important situation considered in Transmission exam up till date. But it is a very important 
factor in Real life Transmission. Refer meteorology for more details on this. 



Situation: weather deviation denied by ATC.
Transmission-
Pilot: NAGPUR CONTROL VT-LMC WEATHER DEVIATION
REQUIRED 60 DME DISTANCE TO NNP FL330 REQ DEVIATION 
TO RIGHT BY 15NM DUE BAD WEATHER  DURATION 10 MINUTES

Nagpur control: VT-LMC UNABLE TO APPROVE DEVIATION RIGHT 
DUE TRAFFIC SPICE-JET 191. AIRBUS. 25NM TO YOUR RIGHT
FL330 REQUEST INTENTION.

Pilot: FOR THE SAFTEY OF AIRCRAFT PASSENGER  (PAX)
DEVIATING RIGHT CONTACTING TRAFFIC

--------------------------------- NO FUTHUR REPLY FROM Nagpur Control

Pilot: SPICE JET 191, VT-LMC AIRBUS 60 DME DISTANCE 
TO NNP G450 FL330 DEVIATING TO
RIGHT BY 15NM  (or less as long as you clear wx safely)
TO AVOID WEATHER DURATION 10 MINUTES
ALL EXTERIOR LIGHTS SWITCHED ON 
KEEP A LOOK OUT
SpiceJet-191: VT-LMC WILL KEEP A LOOK OUT, SPICE JET-191



Situation (b.)  Aircraft is not in contact with ATC
  figure 2.4                                -by ICA
When there is no contact with ATC, and weather deviation is necessary. 
1. if flying easterly direction-  While Turning Right, fly off the ATS 
    assigned route and climb by 300 feet at 10nm from ATS route. No need
    to climb if you are taking diversion within 10 nm. 

2. if flying easterly direction -  While Turning left, fly off the ATS assigned
    route and descend by 300 feet at 10nm from ATS route. No need to descend
    if you are taking diversion within 10nm.

3. if flying wasterly direction -  While Turning right, fly off the ATS assigned
    route and descend by 300 feet at 10nm from ATS route. No need to descend
    if you are taking diversion within 10nm.


4. if flying wasterly direction -  While Turning left, fly off the ATS assigned
    route and climb by 300 feet at 10nm from ATS route. No need to climb
    if you are taking diversion within 10nm.



Transmission- Format for weather diversion if not in contact with ATC
Pilot: PAN-PAN PAN-PAN PAN-PAN
ALL AIRCRAFT ALL AIRCRAFT
IN THE VICINITY OF 70 DME DISTANCE NNP
G450 FL330. TURNING RIGHT BY 15NM
DUE BAD WEATHER 
AT 10NM WILL CLIMB TO FL333 AND MAINTAIN 
ON DEVIATED TRACK
ALL EXTERIOR LIGHTS SWITCHED ON
KEEP A LOOK OUT.

* climb or descend by 300 feet if you are diverting within 10nm.
   if diversion distance is not given in question. better to take diversion 
   within 10nm so that there is no need to transmit unnecessary and
   it will save lot of time.



   8. Wind Shear Report       
Transmission Format for wind shear report-
1. Station called
2. Station calling
3. "WIND SHEAR REPORT"
4. Time
5. Intensity
6. Height
7. Location

Example-1
Pilot: Delhi Twr VT-RJH
windshear report
time: 0915 Intensity Moderate
Height 700 Feet
In approach path

*Wind shear warning given by ATC to other aircraft:
Delhi Twr: VT-RJO wind shear warning
reported by arriving Boeing at time 0915
intensity moderate in approach path
runway 27 height 700 feet



 9. Vehicle on Taxiway
figure 2.5                                -by ICA
                                 
Informing ATC - Vehicle passes in front of you  
Pilot: Delhi Ground VT-NOJ on Taxiway B (bravo) approaching
intersection taxiway B-C 
A green car on taxiway C (charlie), from left to right.



10. Request to change ATS Route (Altering Route)

Given Situation: Aircraft Identity VT-LMC     Route: VABB-VIDP, W13N
                           FL300                           Refer chart no. 1. (download charts from link given above)

 -Over DOTIP, you decided to change your route from APANO and proceed
 to delhi via indore.

Transmission-
Pilot: MUMBAI CONTROL VT-LMC
POSITION DOTIP 1115
FL300, WILL ALTER COURSE FROM
APANO AND PROCEED VIA W10 FL310
IID W10, BPL W20N FL300
ESTIMATE APANO 1130
BODAR 1145 IID 1200
Golden Words: In this above given transmission. we changed our 
Flight Level from FL300 to FL310 and again changed from FL310
to FL300. It is because we are changing our direction at those points 
so applied changes according to the " semi-circular" Rule. please read 
semi-circular rule for more details. 



11. Urgency
The situation which do not require immediate assistance/attention: can be defined as " a condition concerning the safety of an aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on board  or within sight which do not require immediate assistance"

These situation cannot be defined and it is Pilot who decides the severity 
of situation and transmits message as an Urgency call.

If there is an Urgency Situation, Transmit you message to the station with " PAN-PAN" call,    Repeated Three Time

Transmission Format 
Pan-Pan Pan-Pan Pan-Pan
Station called - 
Station calling (on frequency)
Type of aircraft-
Nature of emergency-
Position- 
Intention- 
Useful information-  (Total person on board= passenger on board + crew+yourself,
                                 -Fuel on board or endurance in Hour/Minutes)

                                             12. Distress

The situation which require immediate assistance/attention: can be defined as " a condition of being threatened by serious and/or imminent danger and of requiring immediate assistance "


These situation cannot be defined and it is Pilot who decides the severity 
of situation and transmits message as an Urgency call.

some of the situation given below should  be treated as Distress situation:
1. Cabin Pressure reduces.
2. Aircraft structural damage.
3. Aircraft enters in prohibited area.
4. Engine on fire ...etc

If there is a Distress Situation, Transmit you message to the station with " MAY-DAY" call, Repeated Three Time


Transmission Format 
May-Day May-Day May-Day
Station called - 
Station calling (on frequency)
Type of aircraft-
Nature of emergency-
Position- 
Intention- 
Useful information-  (Total person on board= passenger on board + crew+yourself,
                                 -Fuel on board or endurance in Hour/Minutes)
Important : In case of distress/urgency, transmit your message on the frequency 
which is in use instead of emergency freq. 121.5mhz. switch to 121.5mhz only if asked by Station. 

Situation (a):  Cabin Decompression 
Aircraft Ident.: VT-LMC                            Type of aircraft: Challenger
- you are 70nm to NNP(fix of nagpur) that cabin pressure reduces, take necessary 
action as you decide to continue flight to kolkata. 


Transmission- Cabin Decompression 
Pilot: May-Day May-Day May-Day
NAGPUR CONTROL VT-LMC ON 123.9 CHALLENGER
EXPERIENCING DECOMPRESSION 
POSITION 70 DME DISTANCE TO NNP FL330
REQUEST IMMEDIATE DESCEND TO FL90
WILL CONTINUE FLIGHT TO KOLKATA
PASSENGER ON-BOARD 053
FUEL 1 TON 


Nagpur control- VT-LMC ROGER YOUR MAY-DAY
DESCEND TO FL90

Pilot- LEAVING FL330 FOR FL90, VT-LMC



Situation (b): Engine on fire 
Aircraft Reg.:  VT-LMC                   Type of Aircraft: Airbus
                                                                        Route: VIDP-VABB
                                                                         FL340

                          - That you are 80nm to VIJP,  your left engine catches fire, you decided to land at VIJP

Transmission-Engine on fire 
Pilot: May-Day May-Day May-Day
DELHI CONTROL VT-LMC ON 123.9 AIRBIUS
ENGINE NO. 1 ON FIRE POSITION 80DME DISTANCE
TO JJP FL340 WILL MAKE FORCE LANDING 
AT JAIPUR 
EST. JAIPUR IN 10 MINUTES
REQUEST DESCEND LEVELS 
PERSON ON BOARD 105
ENDURANCE 3 HOURS 45 MINUTES


Situation (c): Aircraft Entered on Prohibited Area
* If you enter in prohibited area, transmit "MAY-DAY"  (three times) and come out 
from the shortest way and land at the nearest aerodrome as soon as practical.           


                                 13. Visual Approach

For visual approach-
* Aircraft should runway in sight.
* The pilot should ensure that he will be close to complete visual approach without loosing
   sight of runway.
* The pilot should ensure that he will be able to complete visual approach without encountering 
   IMC
* If in case pilot looses sight of the runway, he should discontinue visual approach.


Example-
Transmission-
Pilot- MUMBAI TOWER VT-LMC ON 118.1
AIRBUS FL50 FROM MUMBAI RWY IN SIGHT
REQUEST VISUAL APPROACH


Mumbai tower- VT-LMC CLEARED FOR VISUAL APPROACH 
DESCEND TO CIRCUIT ALTITUDE REPORT DOWNWIND 
LEFT HAND CIRCUIT RWY27 QNH 1010

Pilot- CLEARED FOR VISUAL APPROACH
LEAVING FL50 FOR CIRCUIT ALTITUDE 
WILL REPORT DOWNWIND LEFT HAND 
CIRCUIT RWY27 QNH 1010


Mumbai tower- THAT IS CORRECT

Pilot- VT-LMC (do not forget to acknowledge)

Pilot- MUMBAI TOWER VT-LMC REPORTING DOWNWIND


Mumbai tower- MUMBAI TOWER

Pilot- MUMBAI TOWER VT-LMC
REPORTING BASE


Mumbai tower- MUMBAI TOWER

Pilot- MUMBAI TOWER, VT-LMC
REPORTING FINAL


Mumbai tower- CLEAR TO LAND WIND CALM

Pilot- CLEAR TO LAND 



Example-Discontinuing visual approach
Transmission- 
Pilot- MUMBAI TOWER, VT-LMC
DISCONTINUING/ABANDONING 
VISUAL APPROACH DUE RUNWAY 
NOT IN SIGHT. POSITION DOWNWIND CIRCUIT ALTITUDE.
REQUEST INSTRUCTIONS.


Mumbai tower- VT-LMC TURN RIGHT BY 90 DEGREES CLIMB TO FL 50
REACHING FL50 RETURN TO BBB EXPECT ILS APPROACH
RUNWAY 27

Pilot-TURNING RIGHT BY 90 DEGREES RETURN TO BBB UPON 
REACHING FL50
EXPECT ILS APPROACH RUNWAY 27


Bonus situation: while taxing on taxiway you experienced hot Tyre indication, take action.
Transmission- 
Pilot- DELHI TWR AI-131 GETTING HOT TYRE INDICATION POSITION TAXIWAY
MIKE STOPPING AIRCRAFT SLOWLY REQUEST FIRE TRUCK SERVICES FOR      
VISUAL CHECK.                                                                                                          




14. Standard Instrument Departure (SID`s)

Read the chart carefully before you start exercise. Read the highlighted fields.
you can copy and save these charts. 

chart-1
SID 1.1     VIDP  DELHI RWY27/28  (sample copy)














Example- Route: ALI 1E RWY 28 (refer chart given above for route- SID 1.1)
Transmission-
Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ON 118.1
5 DME DISTANCE (DPN) TURNING LEFT TRACK 175


Delhi Twr- ROGER

Pilot-DELHI TWR VT-RMC ON TRACK 175 TO INTERCEPT 
R355 SKA TO MABER


Delhi Twr- VT-RMC ROGER, CONTACT DELHI APPROACH ON 127.9 


Pilot- SWITCHING TO DELHI APPROACH ON 127.9

Pilot- DELHI APPROACH ON 127.9 VT-RMC  ESTABLISHED ON R355 SKA TO MABER


Delhi App.- ROGER

Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC TURNING LEFT TO INTERCEPT R283 ALI
TO ALIGARH


Delhi App.- ROGER

Pilot- DELHI APPROACH VT-RMC ESTABLISHED ON R283 ALI TO ALIGARH
PASSING FL70 REQUEST FURTHER CLIMB TO FL270

GOLDEN WORDS: Do not Read-back the transmission from the chart or the given clearance, use standard phraseology after reading the instructions from charts.
As you can see in  above transmission, the transmission is in standard form.
you will surly wont get any marks if it is a read back from the chart or clearance.
Dont forget to transmit if you intercept any Radial and after  you established on that Radial.
Instructions will be given on chart or if not given, it will be given by examiner after you 
Request for ATC clearance. 

How to obtain ATC clearance ? for chart given above:
- suppose your route is DELHI TO LUCKHNOW

Transmission- for ATC clearance
Pilot- Delhi Tower, VT-RMC ON 118.1 REQUEST ATC CLEARANCE
(clearance will be given by examiner, after that give compliance to that clearance) 

Don`t change your frequency from tower/in use freq. to next facility until asked by 
tower/in use freq. no matter in what control area you are flying. But you can request 
to switch freq. to next facility if control area is indicated as per given chart, else continue with same freq. in use to give further compliance. 



Example- Route: PUMOT 1A RWY28 (Refer chart given above for route- SID 1.1)

Transmission-
Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ON 118.1 5DME DISTANCE (DPN) 
TURNING LEFT TRACK 175 TO SOMAX

Delhi Twr- ROGER, DELHI TOWER

Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ON TRACK 175 DEGREES TO SOMAX

Delhi Twr- ROGER

Pilot- DELHI TOWER VT-RMC CROSSING R233 DPN
TURNING LEFT TO INTERCEPT R299 ALI

Delhi Twr- ROGER

Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ESTABLISHED ON R299 ALI TO RADOM

Delhi Twr- DELHI TOWER

Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC 61.5 DME DISTANCE ALI TURNING TO ESTABLISH R260 SSB

Delhi Twr- VT-RMC ROGER, DELHI TWR

Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ESTABLISH ON R260 (SSB) 112.4 DME DISTANCE
TO SSB FOR PUMOT



15. Standard Terminal Arrival Route(s) (STAR`s)

Read the chart carefully before you start exercise. Read the highlighted fields.
you can copy and save these charts. 

chart-2







STAR 1.2     VOMM CHENNAI VOR RUNWAY 07  (sample copy)

Example- Position: W20 R-342 IAF 14D 
(Refer chart given above for route- STAR 1.2)
Transmission-
Pilot- CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC R342 W20 14DME MMV LEAVING 
FL50 FOR 4000 TURNING RIGHT FOR 12 DME ARC ILS APPROACH 
RWY07

Chennai Twr- ROGER

Pilot- CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC COMMENCING 12 DME ARC 
CROSSING R318 LEAVING 4000 FOR 2300

Chennai Twr- CHENNAI TOWER


Pilot- CHENNAI TOWER  VT-LMC CROSSING LEAD RADIAL 258
TURNING LEFT TO INTERCEPT LOCALIZER

Chennai Twr- CHENNAI TOWER

Pilot- CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC ESTABLISHED ON LOCALIZER REQUEST 
LANDING CLEARANCE

Chennai Twr- VT-LMC, CONTINUE APPROACH

Pilot- CONTINUE APPROACH, VT-LMC

Chennai Twr- VT-LMC, RUNWAY NOT CLEAR. 
         CONTINUE APPROACH

Pilot- CONTINUE APPROACH, VT-LMC

Pilot- CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC CROSSING OUTER MARKER
REQUEST LANDING CLEARANCE

Chennai Twr- VT-LMC CLEAR TO LAND WIND CALM

Pilot- CLEAR TO LAND


GOLDEN WORDS: DO NOT FORGET TO REPORT WHILE 
CROSSING MANDATORY RADIAL FOR REPORTING, WHILE
CHANGING LEVEL, AFTER ESTABLISHED ON ARC AND
WHILE CROSSING LEAD RADIAL. IF LANDING CLEARANCE
IS NOT OBTAINED. GET IT BEFORE OR ON OUTER-MARKER.
DO NOT LAND IF YOU DO NOT HAVE CLEARANCE, IN
THAT CASE COMMENCE MISS-APPROACH AND
READ THE MISS APPROACH PROCEDURE GIVEN IN 
ABOVE CHART. GIVE COMPLIANCE WITH MISS APPROACH
PROCEDURE.


  Download HYPOTHETICAL ATS ROUTE CHARTS
   for practice:
   click on link given below:
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/90632798/Hypothetical-ATS-Route-Charts



                              16. HOLDINGS OVER FIX / w.r.t. FIX

Holding can be done over VOR, NDB & G.P.S. WAY POINT

holding instructions may be given by ATC or if not given by ATC it should be followed by instructions 
given in charts or AIP etc.
Holding clearance if given by ATC contains following elements-

1. Name of fix
2. Directions of inbound leg from the fix.
3. Radials / bearings that define the inbound leg.
4. Turn direction (if non-standard)
5. Leg length ( if non-standard. if not given; fly standard-each leg for one minute with standard rate of turn )
6. Expect further clearance time (EFC)
7. Any applicable notes

Holding entries:  (Good to know : Not applicable for RTR TRANSMISSION)

1. Direct
2. Parallel
3. Tear Drop

Begin slowing your airspeed not less than 3 minutes before holding fix.
MHS: 
200: KIAS              MHA-6000 ft msl
230: KIAS              6001-14000 ft msl
265: KIAS              14001- msl and Above

The 5 T`s Pilot should remember
1. Turn
2. Time
3. Twist (OBS)
4. Throttle
5. Talk (Radio Communication)

Report Format: 
1. Station calling 
2. is Established
3. Holding altitude
4. Time (ex: 1340Z )

Required Reports: 
1. Time and altitude when reaching a fix
2. Time leaving a holding fix

*Holding can be done OVER the fix or at some DME w.r.t. FIX
*Holding instruction may be given on chart or it might be asked by ATC to hold at any point
 with complete instructions.

CHART 1.3  HOLDING PATTERN
ATC holding Instructions and Transmission for Holding at POINT (a.) given in chart
Example- Position: RWY 07 while commencing miss-approach when 
- Aircraft fails to land. Read the miss approach procedure and follow the instructions. 
Transmit according to instructions.
[ Refer chart-STAR 1.3  point (a.) ]
Transmission-
Pilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC UNABLE TO 
          LAND (give reason: why unable to land) RWY 07
          COMMENCING MISS-APPROACH
                                                           
                                                 Twr- CHENNAI TWR

Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC AT 2300 FEET RUNWAY HEADING
TURNING LEFT FOR MMV VOR HOLDING R269 AT 3000 FEET
EST. MMV 1350Z (TIME)


                                                 Twr-CHENNAI TWR 

Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC AT MMV 1350Z 3000 FEET
FOR VOR HOLDING R269

                                                   Twr-CHENNAI TWR

Pilot-CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC
ON OUTBOUND LEG HOLDING MMV 3000 FEET

                                                    Twr-CONTINUE HOLDING
[ REPORT WHILE TURNING TO ESTABLISH OR AFTER ESTABLISHED 
ON INBOUND LEG ]


Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC TURNING INBOUND R269
         HOLDING

                                                 Twr-CONTINUE HOLDING

[ REPORT ONLY FOR FIRST HOLD AT INBOUND AND OUTBOUND
LATER REPORT ONLY AT INBOUND OR OVER THE FIX OR 30-40 
SECONDS BEFORE THE TIME, IF TIME FOR HOLD IS GIVEN BY ATC ]


Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC INBOUND CONTINUE HOLDING

                                                     Twr-CHENNAI TWR

Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC MMV 1355Z
CONTINUE HOLDING

                                                        Twr-CHENNAI TWR

Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC MMV 1359Z
( you will reach over the fix and report with time after each hold
That takes standard time 1 min on each leg and total hold is for 4 min.
only applicable for standard holding )


Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC INBOUND MMV R269 CONTINUE HOLDING

                                                                  Twr-CHENNAI TWR

continue hold until advised further by ATC..................





ATC holding Instructions and Transmission for Holding at POINT (b.) given in chart


Example- Position: RWY 07 after miss-approach when 
- Aircraft fails to land. ATC may give following Instructions to hold
at initial approach fix-IAF W22 R-091 AT 20D (20 DME)
[ Refer chart-STAR 1.3  point (b.) ]
Transmission-
Pilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC UNABLE TO LAND 
           RWY 07. WILL CLIMB 2300 FEET RUNWAY HEADING

Chennai Twr- VT-LMC PROCEED DIRECT TO IAF W22 AT 4000 AND 
HOLD R091 20 DME MMV HOLD AT FL65 TIME 3 MINUTES.
( check the minimum holding altitude in chart it`s MHA FL65, that means aircraft 
cannot hold below the MHA but if instructed by ATC to hold below MHA
 it should be followed instead of MHA given in chart ) 


(ATC MAY GIVE YOU THE LENGHT OF LEG IN NM`s TO 
HOLD AND TO AVOID MORE NO OF TURNS AS WELL
AS DIRECTION TO MAKE TURN IN HOLDING IN CASE OF 
NON-STANDARD HOLDING.
IF NO SUCH INSTRUCTION IS GIVEN THEN FOLLOW THE CHART 
AND IF NOT GIVEN ON CHART THEN FOLLOW THE STANDARD TURN
TO RIGHT HAND SIDE AND KEEP LEG LENGHT FOR 1 MINUTE
ON EACH LEG)

Pilot-  VT-LMC PROCEED DIRECT TO IAF W22 AT 4000 AND
HOLD R091 20 DME MMV HOLD AT FL60 TIME 3 MINUTES.

(GIVE COMPLIANCE TO GIVEN INSTRUCTIONS)


Pilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC AT IAF 20D MMV FOR VOR HOLDING
 R091 AT FL60 1350Z

Chennai Twr- CONTINUE HOLDING

Pilot-  CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC ON OUTBOUND R091MMV HOLDING
Chennai Twr- CONTINUE HOLDING

Pilot- CHENNAI TWR AI-131 TURNING FOR INBOUND HOLDING
20 DME MMV

Chennai Twr- CONTINUE HOLD

Pilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC HOLDING 091, 20DME MMV
( no further inbound/outbound reported after one inbound and one out bound report, 
now report should be over the fix or on inbound leg just before reaching over the fix )

Chennai Twr- CONTINUE HOLD EXPECT VOR ILS 07 STAND 
BY FOR FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS

Pilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC CONTINUE HOLDING R091 20 DME MMV
 REQ FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS TO LAND RWY 07 VOR ILS.

Don`t forget to Transmit time while leaving the hold

ATC MAY ASK YOU TO HOLD AT POINT (C.) INDICATED ON CHART.
INSTRUCTIONS MAY BE AS FOLLOWS - 

CHENNAI TWR- VT-LMC FLY DIRECT TO IAF DCT TIRUPATI
AT FL 50 AND HOLD ON R-318 16 DME MMV HOLDING TO RIGHT (right hand pattern)
EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE AT 1350Z

In instructions given in transmission, time for hold and length of holding leg
is not given. So keep holding  time as standard i.e. for 1 minute on each leg. 


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