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Friday, January 20, 2012


This section is focused on viva/theory applicable for Electronics In Aviation Communication:

ohm`s law:  ohm`s law states that the current flowing through an electrical circuit is directly
                  proportional to the EMF and inversely proportional to its resistance at a constant

                                    I = E / R

                  where,    I = current (unit -ampere), E = EMF(unit- Volt) and R = resistance (unit- ohm)

Power:  The product of current and EMF is known as Power.
             watt is the unit of power.

              1 kilowatt is power consumed in one hour.

              W = I × E

Battery:  connecting a *primary cells  (1.5 v) in series or parallel combination forms battery.
               *primary cells cannot be recharged

Volt:  The S.I.* unit of EMF. The Difference of potential that would carry one ampere of current 
          against one  ohm resistance. 

*SI UNITS: Système International d'Unités  (INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS)

Ampere: It is a unit of current. one ampere of current represents one coulomb of electric charge
               moving past  a specific point in one second.

EMF: The rate at which energy is drawn from the source when unit current flows
           through the circuit measured in unit, Volts.

" e.m.f  is not a force in classic physics sense because it is measured in Volts & not in Newton "

 * For aircraft requiring a battery of 12v, 6 cells are connected in series. When the cells are connected in
    parallel, the voltage of the battery remains the same as the single cell. however, the amount of current
    that can be drawn from the battery will multiply depending upon number of cells in parallel.

Resistance:  The force that oppose the flow of electron current in a conductor.
                      unit of resistance is ohm.

When resistance are connected in series, the total resistance of the circuit is equal to
                     Total Resistance, Rt = r1 + r2 + r3

                      When more than one resistance are connected in parallel (in circuit ), the total resistance
                      of the circuit is equal to :
                                                           Total Resistance: 1/R = 1/r1 + 1/r2 + 1/r3

Capacitance/capacitor: It is a passive electronic component that stores energy in a form
                                       of an electrostatic field. unit of capacitance is farad.
* The insulating material used on capacitor plates called Di-Electric

C = Q/V

where,          C = capacitance in farad
                 Q = charge in coulomb
                                V = voltage  (potential difference)

Eddy Current: An electric current induced within the body of a conductor when conductor
                        either moves through a non-uniform magnetic magnetic field or in the region
                        where there is a  change in magnetic flux. It is sometimes called Foucault current.
                        Eddy current cause heat and electromagnetic force in current.
                        Eddy current is superficial phenomenon.

 About EMF, Open & Close Circuit of Cells

"In cell, The EMF is close circuit & voltage at the terminal of cell that is 
neither charging nor discharging is called the open circuit voltage and equals 
the emf of the cell"

     Kirchhoff`s law

Kirchhoff`s first law: The algebraic sum of  current in network of conductors meeting at a point is zero.
                                    (figure 1.)

                           In figure 1. given above,  i1 + i4 = i2 + i3 (according to Kirchhoff circuit law)

Kirchhoff`s second law:  The directed sum of the electronic potential differences
                                         (voltage) around any close circuit is zero.
 (figure 2.)

In figure 2. given above,   V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 = 0

Formula to calculate electric fan RPM:
H.P. = (T ×N)/5252

H.P. - horse power
T= torque
N= speed (RPM)


Transformers is a device used in A.C. circuit either to step up or step down the voltage. It works on the principle of mutual induction. 

 *  A.C. supply is 50 to 60 times per second and is called 50 hz/ 60 hz A.C.

 *In order to reduce the size of transformers/chokes etc in an aircraft. the A.C. supply is 400hz.


"a machine which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy is called  Generators whereas, 
a machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is called Motors"

A.C. GENERATOR - a generator designed to produce A.C. current is called A.C. generators or an alternator

D.C.GENERATOR - a generator producing D.C. energy is called D.C. generators. Both type (A.C. & D.C.) of generators operated by inducing an A.C. voltage with the help of commutator the A.C. energy can be converted in to D.C.


A choke is a coil of insulated wire often wound on a magnetic core, used as a passive inductor which blocks higher frequency A.C. in an electric circuit while allowing to pass low frequency and direct current by having an impedance largely determined by reactance.


Uses: Chokes are used in Radio Circuits are divided into two class -
1. Designed to use with power and audio frequency.
2. For Radio frequency.

we would like to hear for corrections along with the proof of mistakes on:



  1. awesome WPC RTR Notes by blog
    Indian Commercial Aviation

    Thanks mate

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