Please Refer These Publications For RTR Part-II (INDIA)
* vol I - For Radio Nav. Aid.
* vol II - For Communication Procedure.
(b) Doc. 4444- Procedure of Air Navigation Service (PANS).
& ATM- Air Traffic Management.
(c) Doc. 9432- Manual of Radio telephony.
(D) Doc. 8400- Abbreviations & Codes.
(c) AIC- Aeronautical Information Circulars.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UTC AND GMT
UTC is a atomic clock time and GMT is a time maintained as per the rotation of the earth
with respect to sun.
GMT- is maintained by royal observatory in Greenwich, London.
UTC- is maintained in Laboratories around the world.
The difference of UTC and GMT should not be more than 0.9 seconds and it is added to GMT at irregular interval and called Leap Seconds.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RESTRICTED AIRSPACE AND PROHIBITED AIRSPACE
RESTRICTED AIRSPACE- The airspace within which flight of aircraft
is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions.
This designation is normally used whenever the activities within
the airspace is hazardous to other
users or other users could constitute a hazard to the activities carried
out in that defined airspace as restricted.
PROHIBITED AIRSPACE- An airspace within which flight of aircraft is not
allowed, usually due to security concerns. It is depicted on on
aeronautical charts with letter "P" followed
by a serial no. It differs from restricted airspace in that entry
is typically forbidden at all times
for all aircraft and it is not subjected to clearance from ATC or
Airspace controlling body.
DOPPLER S EFFECT
A Phenomenon, observed for sound and electromagnetic radiation
characterized by a change in the apparent frequency of a wave as
a result of relative motion between the observer and the source.
(example- an apparent change in car horn when a car is in
-motion with respect to stationary observer)
7500- FOR HIJACK
7600- FOR RADIO FAILURE
7700- FOR DISTRESS
2000- FOR FIR CROSSING
1200- VFR FLIGHT
ELT- EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTERS
(ELT works on frequency 121 mhz, 121.5 mhz, 406mhz and 243 mhz)
1. After Aircraft crash>>>
2. Signals transmitted by ELT on 121mhz, 121.5mhz, 243mhz & 406mhz>>>
3. Signals picked up by polar orbiting any one of the 6 satellites>>>
4. Satellite in turn, relays the same location information of crashed aircraft to a
ground station called "Local User Terminal - (LUT)" which has been established
at Bangalore & also established in Lucknow, India>>>
5. LUT indicates the position of the active becon site radius of 5nm>>>relays it to
- "Mission Control Center (MCC)" which is co-located with LUT, Bangalore>>>
6. MCC processes the Information, Identifies the Concerned FIR`s and automatically
transmits the same to one of the 5 RCC(Rescue Co-ordination Center of 5 FIR`s)
* In case of Aircraft crashes in foreign>> MCC receives Data from Foreign LUT and
relays it to Indian RCC.
* To identify where there crashed Transmission is from Ship or Aircraft
which cannot be detected by LUT & MCC, if ship/aircraft
uses freq. 121.5 mhz & 243 mhz but by using freq. 406 mhz they
get enough of data to identify the signal is from ship or
aircraft. it also identify particular crashed ship or aircraft.
In dopplers VOR (2nd generation VOR) the reference signal is transmitted from a central aerial and it is amplitude modulated. The variable signal is transmitted from a system of 50 aerials encircling the central aerial and it is frequency modulated.
The signals send by VOR is of 30 Hz used for measuring phase difference.
Doppler VOR is improved version of VOR, the resultant propagation is much less sensitive to obstructions in the vicinity.
*(In conventional VOR, the variable signal is emitted by rotating it with 30 Revolutions per second. It carries a 9960 Hz sub-carrier that is frequency modulated at 30 Hz )
*( C-VOR suffers from reflections from objects in the vicinity of the VOR site and found that errors were due to this could have been reduced if the horizontal antenna dimensions were increased)
*(In D-VOR the reference signal is amplitude modulated, while the variable signal is frequency modulated. This means the modulation is opposite as compared to C-VOR.
This is because the frequency modulated signal is less subject to interference than the amplitude modulated signal and therefore the received signals provides more accurate bearing determination )
Aerodrome Reference Point (ARP)
Aerodrome Reference Point is Designated geographical location of an aerodrome
given to the nearest second of latitude and longitude. The ARP is located as near as it is practical to
the geometric center of the Landing area, taking into account of the
possible future development of that area.
Magnetic bearings and distance of obstructions within 4nm which may constitute hazards to
aircrafts flying in vicinity of aerodrome are measured from ARP,
also called Airport reference point.
NOTICE - THESE NOTES ARE JUST FOR PERSONAL USE AND CANNOT BE USED FOR QUOTING WITH ANY AUTHORITY.
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